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INGLÊS - DICAS IMPORTANTES DE APRENDIZADO
INGLÊS - DICAS IMPORTANTES DE APRENDIZADO

Pronomes Pessoais

Pronomes Pessoais
(Subject pronoun)

Adjetivos Possessivos
(Possessive adjectives)

 

I

Eu

My

Meu (s), Minha(s)

 

You

Você

Your

Seu  ,Sua

 

He

Ele

His

Dele

 

She

Ela

Her

Dela

 

It

Ele ou Ela (neutro)

Its*

Deles, Delas,

Seu(s), Seu(s)

 

We

Nós

Our

Nosso, Nossa

 

You

Vocês

Your

Seus, Suas

 

They

Eles ou Elas

Their

Deles, Delas

 

 

Pronomes Pessoais

Tradução

Uso


I
You
He
She
It
We
You
They
 

Eu
Você
Ele
Ela
Ele ou Ela (neutro)
Nós
Vocês
Eles ou elas



Usado como sujeito da oração. Quase sempre antes de um verbo. Possui função de sujeito.

 

Pronomes Oblíquos

Tradução

Uso


Me
You
Him
Her
It
Us
You
Them
 

Mim, with+me = comigo
Você, te, with+you = contigo

Ele, o
Ela, a
Ele, ela, o, a
Nos, with+us = conosco
Vocês
Eles, elas, os, as

Usado como objeto da oração. Sempre após um verbo. Também usado após preposições.


Observações:

-Observe que o pronome pessoal "you" possui a mesma forma para o singular e o plural.
- Observe que no pronome obíquo "you" possui a mesma forma
para o singular e o plural.
- Observe que "you" e "it" possuem formas idênticas tanto
como pronomes pessoais quanto oblíquos.
- It é usado com objetos, animais, coisas, idéias, etc.
- They é o plural de "he", "she" e "it".
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

VERBOS IRREGULARES + TEMPOS VERBAIS

 

 

Present Simple

 

Positive

Verb example

Negative

Verb example

I

You

We

They

work.

I

You

We

They

don’t (do not)

work.

He

She

It

works.

He

She

It

doesn’t (does not)

 

 

Question

Verb example

Short answer

 

Do

I

you

we

they

work?

Yes,

 

I

you

we

they

do.

 

don’t.

 

No,

 

Does

he

she

it

Yes,

 

he

she

it

does.

 

doesn’t.

 

No,

 

 

 

 

Use

Examples

Long-term situations

I live in Madrid.

Where does she work?

Habits and routines

I travel to work by car.

How often do you play golf?

Feelings and opinions

She doesn’t like her work.

I agree with you.

Facts

The journey takes 30 minutes.

It costs $ 15.

 

 

Question words

 

Where do you live?

In Rome.

What do you do at weekends?

I usually play golf.

When do they take their holiday?

In July or August.

Which magazine does James write for?

Wine and Dine.

How do you travel to work?

By car.

How often do you make business trips?

About twice a month.

Whose book is this?

It’s mine.

Who (*Whom) do you visit in London?

I visit my sister.

Who arrives at work first?

Anna does.

 

* Whom is very formal, and is not used very often.

 

 

Present Continuous

 

Positive

Verb example

Negative

Verb example

 

I

’m (am)

working.

I

’m not (am not)

working.

 

He

She

It

’s (is)

 

He

She

It

isn’t (is not)

 

You

We

They

’re (are)

 

You

We

They

aren’t (are not)

 

 

Positive

Verb example

Short answer

 

Am

I

working?

Yes,

I

am.

 

Is

he

she

it

No,

’m not.

 

Yes,

he

she

it

is.

 

No,

isn’t.

 

Are

you

we

they

 

Yes,

you

we

they

are.

 

No,

aren’t.

 

 

Use

Examples

Actions happening now

He’s talking on the phone at the moment.

They’re having lunch with a customer.

Temporary situations or actions

Jeans are selling well this season.

I’m not travelling on business this month.

Which hotel are you staying at?

 

- A dictionary tells you when the final consonant doubles (travel, travelling), and when we leave out the final e (make, making).

 

 

Past Simple

 

Positive

Negative

I

You

He

She

It

We

They

started

rang*

yesterday

I

You

He

She

It

We

They

didn’t (did not)

Start ring*

yesterday.

             

 

Question

Short answer

Did

I

You

He

She

It

We

They

start ring*

yesterday?

Yes,

I

You

He

She

It

We

They

did.

No,

didn’t.

* See the list of irregular verbs on page 16.

 

Use

Examples

Finished situations and actions in the past

I lived in Rome for two years.

He flew to America last week.

They didn’t come to the party.

Where did you spend your last holiday?

 

- We often use the Past Simple with finished time phrases like yesterday, last week, an hour ago.

 

- Regular verbs in the Past Simple end in –ed. A dictionary tells you when the consonant doubles (Group 3), and when the –y changes to –I (Group 4).

 

Group 1

Work

worked

Play

played

Wait

waited

Group 2

Live

lived

Smile

smiled

Close

closed

Group 3

Stop

stopped

Travel

travelled

Plan

planned

Group 4

Study

studied

Worry

worried

Try

tried

 

- When the infinitive ends in a / d / or a / t / sound, we pronounce the –ed ending as / id /

 

 

 

Present Perfect Simple

 

Positive

Verb examples

Negative

Verb examples

I

You

We

They

’ve (have)

arrived. begun.

 

I

You

We

They

haven’t (have not)

arrived. begun.

 

He

She

It

’s (has)

He

She

It

hasn’t (has not)

 

 

Question

Verb examples

Short answer

Verb examples

Have

I

you

we

they

arrived?

begun?

Yes,

I

you

we

they

have.

No,

haven’t.

Has

he

she

it

Yes,

he

she

it

has.

No,

hasn’t.

 

 

Use

Examples

Finished experiences in your life up to now

She’s lived in China and Japan.

He’s had experience of marketing

Have you ever been to Brazil?

Recent situations and actions in a time up to now

We’ve reduced prices.

Corporate business has increased significantly.

Have you had a holiday this year?

Situations that started in the past and still continue

He’s been an architect since 1992.

She’s had a translation agency for ten years.

How long have you known her?

Past actions in a time up to now where we give the quantity

She’s designed a lot of fashion items for Burberrys.

How many letters have you written?

 

- gone to or been to?

Ann’s gone to New York, means she’s in New York now, or she’s on her way there.

Ann’s been to New York, means she’s not in New York now. Her visit is over.

 

- contracted forms

In spoken English, we usually say I’ve, you’re, he’s, etc.

In formal, written English we normally use I have, you have, he has, etc.

 

 

 

Present Perfect Continuous

 

Positive

Negative

I

You

We

They

’ve (have)

been working.

I

You

We

They

haven’t (have not)

been working.

He

She

It

’s (has)

He

She

It

hasn’t (has not)

 

 

Question

Short answer

Have

I

you

we

they

been working?

Yes,

I

you

we

they

have.

No,

haven’t.

Has

he

she

it

Yes,

he

she

it

has.

No,

hasn’t.

 

 

Use

Examples

Actions that began in the past and continue to the present

We’ve been producing pens since the 1980s.

He’s been living here for five years.

How long have you been learning English?

Actions that began in the past and have just stopped

You look very tired. Have you been working?

I’m hot because I’ve been running.

 

- The Present Perfect Continuous and Simple are similar in meaning. The form we use often depends on whether we are more interested in the action or its result.

I’ve been fixing the car. (My hands are dirty.)

I’ve fixed the car. (Now I can drive to work.)

 

- We use the Present Perfect Continuous to say how long.

They’ve been interviewing people since 10 a.m.

She’s been writing letters all morning.

We use the Present Perfect Simple to say how many.

They’ve interviewed nine people. She’s written five letters.

 

for and since

 

Use

Examples

Use

Examples

With a period of time

For         three days, five hours, a month, ten minutes, ages…

With a point in time

Since        Tuesday, 8 August, 4 o’clock, last summer, 1982...

 

 

 

Future: going to

 

Positive

Negative

 

I

’m (am)

going to begin.

I

’m not (am not)

going to begin.

 

He

She

It

’s (is)

 

He

She

It

isn’t (is not)

 

You

We

They

’re (are)

 

You

We

They

aren’t (are not)

 

 

 

Question

Short answer

 

Am

I

 

going to begin?

Yes,

I

 

am.

 

No,

’m not.

 

 

Is

he

she

it

 

Yes,

he

she

it

is.

 

Are

you

we

they

 

No,

isn’t.

 

Yes,

you

we

they

are.

 

No,

aren’t.

 

 

 

Use

Examples

Future plans, intentions, and decisions

We’re going to buy a new car soon.

When are you going to have a holiday?

I’m not going to have lunch today.

Future actions we feel certain about because of what we can see now.

The sky’s very dark. I’m sure it’s going to rain.

Look out! That car’s going to hit you!

 

- With come and go, we usually use the Present Continuous.

I’m going on holiday soon.

Are they coming by car on Saturday?

 

 

 

Future: Present Continuous

 

For Present Continuous form see page 02.

 

Use

Examples

Fixed future arrangements

I’m flying to Tokyo at 10 a.m. tomorrow.

When is the President arriving?

I’m not playing golf this weekend.

 

 

 

Future: will

 

Positive

Verb example

Negative

Verb example

I

You

He

She

It

We

They

’ll (will)

arrive.

I

You

He

She

It

We

They

won’t (will not)

arrive.

           

 

 

Question

Verb example

Short answer

Verb example

Will

I

You

He

She

It

We

They

arrive?

Yes,

I

You

He

She

It

We

They

will.

No,

won’t (will not).

 

 

Use

Examples

Future facts and predictions

The new hotel will cost $ 10 million.

The construction work won’t start until next year.

How many jobs will there be?

Decisions made at the time of speaking

I’ll give you the report today.

Hold on a minute. I’ll write down your phone number.

 

 

Zero Conditional

 

If + Present Simple + Present Simple

 

 

Positive

Negative

If I read too much, I get a headache

If I didn’t read too much, I didn’t get a headache.

 

 

Question

Negative

You get a headache if you read too much?

 

Yes, I get.

No, I don’t get.

 

 

1st Conditional

 

If + Present Simple + will + infinitive (without to)

 

Positive

Negative

If they offer me the job, I’ll accept it.

 

We’ll have a lot of work if we get the contract.

If you don’t study more, you’ll fail your exam.

They won’t visit us if they’re very busy.

If they don’t leave now, they won’t arrive on time.

 

 

Question

Negative

Will you buy a new car if you have the money?

If you ask him, will he tell you?

What will he do if his plane arrives late?

Yes, I will.

No, he won’t.

-

 

 

Use

Examples

Future possibilities and their results

If the proposal becomes a reality, it will revolutionize train travel in Europe.

If the weather is bad, the train will arrive before the plane.

 

- The if clause can come before or after the main clause. When the if clause comes first, we usually put a comma between it and the main clause.

If the meeting is successful, we’ll sign the contract.

We’ll sign the contract if the meeting is successful.

 

- For things we are certain will happen, we use when nor if.

When he returns from the USA, he’ll contact you. (We know he will return.)

We’ll leave when we finish the work. (We know we will finish the work.

 

 

2nd Conditional

 

If + Past Simple + would + infinitive (without to)

 

Positive

Negative

If I had more time, I'd travel more.

 

He'd understand the reason if you explained it.

If he didn’t earn so much, he wouldn't spend so much.

I wouldn't invest in that company if I were you.

 

 

Question

Negative

Would you stop work if you won $ 1 million?

Would he work abroad if he got the chance?

If you had six months off work, how would you spend the time?

Yes, I would.

No, he wouldn't.

-

 

Use

Examples

Unlikely or unreal situations and their probable results

If public transport were free, there would be fewer cars in the city centres.

If I were the Transport Minister, I would increase petrol prices.

 

- The if clause can come before or after the main clause. When the if clause comes first, we usually put a comma between it and the main clause.

If I won a lot of money, I'd buy a Ferrari.

I'd buy a Ferrari if I won a lot of money.

 

- With I, he, and she, we can use was instead of were in the if clause, especially in a more informal style.

If it was less expensive, he would buy it.

 

- Could is both the Past and the Conditional of can.

When she lived in Paris, she could visit the Louvre at any time. (Past)

We could make some of the money if we charged motorists. (Conditional)

 

- The Past tense does not refer to past time in a conditional sentence. If refers to an unreal situation.

If I were the Transport Minister... (but I'm not).

 

 

3rd Conditional

 

If + Past Perfect + would have + Past Participle

 

Positive

Negative

If I had studied, I would have passed the exam.

If I had known that day we had a test, I wouldn’t have spent the night drinking.

 

 

Question

Negative

Would you have passed the exam if you had studied?

Yes, I would have.

No, I wouldn’t have.

 

 

Use

Examples

Criticizing people, pointing out their mistakes or expressing regret about the past.

If I had known, I would have gone to visit you.

 

 

 

 

 

VERBOS IRREGULARES

 -------      -------      ---------------     -------------------

 

 arise        arose         arisen             surgir, erguer-se

 awake        awoke         awoken             despertar

 be           was, were     been               ser, estar

 bear         bore          borne              suportar, ser portador de

 beat         beat          beaten             bater

 become       became        become             tornar-se

 befall       befell        befallen           acontecer

 beget        begot         begotten, begot    procriar, gerar

 begin        began         begun              começar

 behold       beheld        beheld             contemplar

 bend         bent          bent               curvar

 bet          bet           bet                apostar

 bid          bid           bid                oferecer, fazer uma oferta

 bind         bound         bound              unir, encadernar, obrigar-se

 bite         bit           bitten             morder

 bleed        bled          bled               sangrar, ter hemorragia

 blow         blew          blown              assoprar, explodir

 break        broke         broken             quebrar

 breed        bred          bred               procriar, reproduzir

 bring        brought       brought            trazer

 broadcast    broadcast     broadcast          irradiar, transmitir

 build        built         built              construir

 buy          bought        bought             comprar

 cast         cast          cast               atirar, deitar

 catch        caught        caught             pegar, capturar

 choose       chose         chosen             escolher

 cling        clung         clung              aderir, segurar-se

 come         came          come               vir

 cost         cost          cost               custar

 creep        crept         crept              rastejar

 cut          cut           cut                cortar

 deal         dealt         dealt              negociar, tratar

 dig          dug           dug                cavocar

 do           did           done               fazer **

 draw         drew          drawn              tracionar, desenhar **

 drink        drank         drunk              beber

 drive        drove         driven             dirigir, ir de carro

 eat          ate           eaten              comer

 fall         fell          fallen             cair

 feed         fed           fed                alimentar

 feel         felt          felt               sentir, sentir-se

 fight        fought        fought             lutar

 find         found         found              achar, encontrar

 flee         fled          fled               fugir, escapar

 fling        flung         flung              arremessar

 fly          flew          flown              voar, pilotar

 forbid       forbade       forbidden          proibir

 forget       forgot        forgot, forgotten  esquecer

 forgive      forgave       forgiven           perdoar

 freeze       froze         frozen             congelar, paralisar

 get          got           gotten, got        obter **

 give         gave          given              dar

 go           went          gone               ir

 grind        ground        ground             moer

 grow         grew          grown              crescer, cultivar

 have         had           had                ter, beber, comer

 hear         heard         heard              ouvir

 hide         hid           hidden, hid        esconder

 hit          hit           hit                bater

 hold         held          held               segurar

 hurt         hurt          hurt               machucar

 keep         kept          kept               guardar, manter

 know         knew          known              saber, conhecer

 lay          laid          laid               colocar em posição horizontal, assentar

 lead         led           led                liderar

 leave        left          left               deixar, partir

 lend         lent          lent               dar emprestado

 let          let           let                deixar, alugar

 lie          lay           lain               deitar

 lose         lost          lost               perder, extraviar

 make         made          made               fazer, fabricar **

 mean         meant         meant              significar, querer dizer

 meet         met           met                encontrar, conhecer

 overcome     overcame      overcome           superar

 overtake     overtook      overtaken          alcançar, surpreender

 pay          paid          paid               pagar

 put          put           put                colocar

 quit         quit          quit               abandonar

 read         read          read               ler

 ride         rode          ridden             andar

 ring         rang          rung               tocar (campainha, etc.)

 rise         rose          risen              subir, erguer-se

 run          ran           run                correr, concorrer, dirigir

 saw          sawed         sawn               serrar

 say          said          said               dizer

 see          saw           seen               ver

 seek         sought        sought             procurar obter, objetivar

 sell         sold          sold               vender

 send         sent          sent               mandar

 set          set           set                pôr em determinada condição, marcar, ajustar **

 shake        shook         shaken             sacudir, tremer

 shed         shed          shed               soltar, deixar cair **

 shine        shone         shone              brilhar, reluzir

 shoot        shot          shot               atirar, alvejar

 show         showed        shown              mostrar, exibir

 shrink       shrank        shrunk             encolher, contrair

 shut         shut          shut               fechar, cerrar

 sing         sang          sung               cantar

 sink         sank          sunk               afundar, submergir

 sit          sat           sat                sentar

 slay         slew          slain              matar, assassinar

 sleep        slept         slept              dormir

 slide        slid          slid               deslizar, escorregar

 sling        slung         slung              atirar, arremessar

 speak        spoke         spoken             falar

 spend        spent         spent              gastar

 spin         spun          spun               fiar, rodopiar

 spit         spit, spat    spit, spat         cuspir

 spread       spread        spread             espalhar

 spring       sprang        sprung             fazer saltar

 stand        stood         stood              parar de pé, agüentar

 steal        stole         stolen             roubar

 stick        stuck         stuck              cravar, fincar, enfiar

 sting        stung         stung              picar (inseto)

 stink        stank         stunk              cheirar mal

 strike       struck        struck             golpear, desferir, atacar

 string       strung        strung             encordoar, amarrar

 strive       strove        striven            esforçar-se, lutar

 swear        swore         sworn              jurar, prometer, assegurar

 sweep        swept         swept              varrer

 swim         swam          swum               nadar

 swing        swung         swung              balançar, alternar

 take         took          taken              tomar **

 teach        taught        taught             ensinar, dar aula

 tear         tore          torn               rasgar, despedaçar

 tell         told          told               contar

 think        thought       thought            pensar

 throw        threw         thrown             atirar, arremessar

 tread        trod          trodden            pisar, trilhar

 undergo      underwent     undergone          submeter-se a, suportar

 understand   understood    understood         entender

 uphold       upheld        upheld             sustentar, apoiar, defender

 wear         wore          worn               vestir, usar, gastar

 win          won           won                vencer, ganhar

 wind         wound         wound              enrolar, rodar, dar corda

 write        wrote         written            escrever, redigir

 

 

 

 

Being and Been

Some writers occasionally confuse the words 'being' and 'been'. As a rule, the word 'been' is always used after 'have' (in any form; e.g. has, had, will have); whereas, 'being' is never used after 'have'.  'Being' is used after 'to be' (in any form; e.g., is, was, were).

Examples:

 I have been busy.   

 Terry has being taking the stores to the shelter. 
('being' cannot follow 'has' or 'have')

 

Being as a Noun

The word 'being' can also be a noun.

Examples:

 A human being   

 A strange being stepped out of the space ship. 

 

Being as a Gerund

The word 'being' can also be a gerund (which is a type of noun).

Examples:

 Do you like being so ignorant?   

 The accident was caused by his being so clumsy.   

 I live in terror of not being misunderstood.   (Oscar Wilde)

 

 

 

DO/DOES/DID  - QUANDO USAR:

            DO                 DOES                     DID
      PAST        PRESENT FUTURE
I         -  DID I         -    DO  
YOU   -  YOU   -      
HE     -  HE     -   DOES  / DÃS /  
SHE   -  SHE   -   DOES  
IT       -  IT       -   DOES  
WE    - WE    -   DO  
YOU   - YOU   -   DO   
THEY  -  THEY -    DO